True Blood, aka the hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier HBOC-201 is, in a word (or two), artificial blood. It delivers oxygen to your squishy organs. And, unlike real blood, it can be stored for years and doesn't require matching blood types.
After years of working pretty well in clinical trials, it's now saved a life for the first the time. The Alfred Hospital in Melbourne brought 33-year-old Tamara Coakley back from a car wreck so brutal it left just a liter of blood in her body. Her spinal cord was almost severed, her lungs collapsed, her skull was fractured, several ribs were broken, as were her cheekbone and an elbow, and her spleen was ruptured. Her religion prevented real blood from being used, so 10 units of True Blood was rushed in and saved her life.